Nutritional Outlook

Nutritional Outlook, May 2018

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■ NUTRITIONAL OUTLOOK 62 MAY 2018 Weight Management And though such products have tradition- ally focused on energy, thermogenesis, and metabolism, "more recently it seems a lot of formulas are catering to consumers who need help managing their sugar intake to maintain healthy blood sugar levels, reduce hunger, and increase satiety," says Brian Ap- pell, marketing manager, OmniActive Health Technologies (Morristown, NJ). Indeed, "Today's diets are loaded with sugar," Appell observes. NPD Group research 6 reveals that while a combination of sug- ary nonalcoholic beverages and processed grain products contribute the lion's share of sugars in contemporary diets, "even foods many people consider healthy can contain more than 95 grams of hidden sugars," he notes—"more than twice the maximum rec- ommended intake." No wonder sugar consumption has been climbing over the past 30 years—and con- tributing to near-epidemic rates of elevated blood sugar and weight gain in the process. "It's the hidden sugars that are largely re- sponsible for this health crisis," Appell adds. So it's also no wonder that when an Omni- Active survey 7 asked consumers which sin- gle item they'd eliminate from their diets if they could, more than half cited sugar and/ or carbohydrates. Exercising Control Appell says that because his company's Salacia chinensis extract—marketed as OmniLean— can "uniquely balance blood sugar and there- by control appetite," it can help users "make healthier choices." T e randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled three-way crossover CARBS (Carbohydrate Appetite Reduction and Blood Sugar) study 8 was the f rst to exam- ine the extract's ef ects on postprandial glyce- mic indices and gut hormones, and it found that when taken with a meal, the ingredient improved glycemic response and changes in gut hormones in healthy overweight/obese individuals, reduced blood sugar spikes, and inf uenced appetite and satiety. Noting that "industry cannot change people's stress or behavior, but we can help them lessen the impact of a carb-laden diet," Skop explains that Pharmachem's white kid- ney bean extract—brand named Phase 2 Carb Controller—helps delay digestion and absorption of dietary starches by temporar- ily inhibiting salivary and pancreatic alpha- amylase enzyme. Carbohydrates that thus resist digestion in the small intestine can travel to the large intestine where they act like dietary f ber, feeding microbiota and up- regulating the hormone GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), which promotes satiety signaling, among other metabolic ef ects. Four placebo-controlled human studies published between 2001 and 2004 showed signif cant weight and inch loss with the product's use. T e most recent study 9 on the ingredient—and the largest human trial on it to date—showed that after 12 weeks of supplementation, those taking the extract lost an average of 7 lb more than the pla- cebo group and experienced a statistically signif cant decrease in the desire, frequency, and strength of cravings for chocolates and other sweet foods; meanwhile the placebo group saw a signif cant increase in the dif- f culty of resisting particular types of food. After 24 weeks, 73.5% of participants in the weight-management phase had successfully maintained their body weight. Diabetes Connection An earlier review 10 of more than a dozen studies also concluded that Pharmachem's kidney-bean extract could potentially induce weight loss and reduce blood sugar spikes caused by carbohydrates. T e study's coau- thor wrote that the ingredient demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss "with doses of 500 to 3,000 mg per day, in either a single dose, or in divided doses. It also has the abil- ity to reduce the postprandial spike in blood glucose levels." All of which suggests that it may play a role in addressing blood sugar management and diabetes. And as far as Weiss is concerned, any supplement capable of doing that is just what we need. He cites World Health Organization numbers estimating that 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014, compared to 108 million in 1980. "T is increasing incidence of diabetes, as well as complications correlating with poor blood sugar, is likely due to an increase in the as- sociated risk factors in individuals, such as being overweight or obese," he says. Chromium "is commonly regarded as ef- fective in helping control blood sugar and carbohydrate cravings, as well as in f ghting body fat and assisting in weight manage- ment," notes Jim Komorowski, chief science of cer at Nutrition 21. T e trace mineral ap- pears to improve insulin's action, boosting the body's ability to manage blood sugar lev- els. "People often struggle to lose weight even when dieting and exercising due to impaired insulin resistance," he notes. "If the body is successfully keeping blood sugar levels in check, managing weight and appetite is a bit more simplif ed." His company's patented Chromax chro- mium picolinate supplement was the focus of a new 2018 review that the company re- cently publicized in a white paper, compar- ing it to other weight-loss products and pro- grams, the conclusion of which was that the supplement yielded the greatest percentage of fat loss and smallest percentage of lean body mass loss relative to total weight loss. As Komorowski notes, "Chromax positively impacts body composition by enabling in- dividuals to lose fat while retaining muscle." Fat Still Matters A signal implication of the study is that not- withstanding the current f xation on carbo- hydrates and sugar, fat—or, more specif cally, adipose tissue—still matters. Why? When a body loses primarily lean body mass and not fat in its ef orts to shed pounds, it suppresses its metabolic rate, setting up conditions for the subsequent accumulation of more fat. Lean body mass also generates energy, and thus its excess loss can trigger fatigue, poor neuromuscu- lar function, and injury risk. "T erefore," Ko- morowski says, "satiety promoters and other low-calorie diets may fall in favor over time compared to products and programs that enhance body composition by increasing fat loss while preserving lean body mass." Because the body requires a controlled insulin response to convert food to energy rather than store it as fat, Komorowski adds, "having a controlled insulin response is very important" to keeping body compo- sition in healthy balance during any weight- loss program. Johanna Maukonen, global health and nutrition science lead at DuPont Nutrition & Health, notes that the results of a double- blind, placebo-controlled weight-manage- ment trial 11 credited her company's Howaru Shape probiotic (10 billion-CFU Bifidobac- terium lactis B420 strain)—either alone or administered with 12 g of the company's

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