Nutritional Outlook

Nutritional Outlook, December 2016

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NUTRITIONAL OUTLOOK ■ 55 deCeMBeR 2016 "Tis is the frst study to translate fnd- ings from studies of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium lactis 420 done in animal models in which it was shown the probi- otic can improve metabolic health in mice by strengthening gut barrier function," says Lotta Stenman, PhD, lead investigator on the preclinical and clinical trials for DuPont Nutrition & Health, in the study announce- ment. "Tere is a long history of research on this particular probiotic strain, starting from initial fndings from cell culture stud- ies published in 2008. It is exciting to see the extensive preclinical and mechanistic work paved the way for identifying a beneft to human health." Palatinose May Enhance Memory, Mood in Children Young H et al., "Te efect of using iso- maltulose (Palatinose) to modulate the gly- caemic properties of breakfast on the cog- nitive performance of children," European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 6 (September 2015): 1013–1020 Palatinose, a disaccharide carbohydrate composed of glucose and fructose from Beneo (Morris Plains, NJ), may improve sev- eral markers of cognitive health in school- aged children, according to recent study results. Compared to a control breakfast prepared with glucose, children who con- sumed an identical breakfast prepared with Palatinose experienced signifcant improve- ments to memory and mood several hours after the meal. Te double-blind, repeated-measure study, published in the European Journal of Nutrition, included 75 children aged 5–11 who consumed two separate breakfasts, each including milk, yogurt, cornfakes, jam, and orange juice. Te meals were identical in calorie count and macronutrient composi- tion, but one meal was sweetened with Pala- tinose while the other meal was sweetened with glucose. At least one week separated consumption of the two breakfasts, and after each meal researchers assessed participant verbal memory, spatial memory, sustained attention, reaction times, speed of informa- tion processing, and mood at both one hour after eating and three hours after eating. While the measures of cognition and mood did not appear to difer at one hour after eating, the Palatinose group showed improvements to performance in memory tests and self-reported scores for mood at three hours after the meal. Both markers for mood and memory were found to be signif- cantly better at three hours after consum- ing the Palatinose breakfast, compared to the glucose breakfast. What's more, in the group of children who consumed the Pala- tinose meal on the second day of testing, in- formation processing was also found to be faster and spatial memory was improved at three hours after ingestion. "We know that children around the age of 4 to 10 years have a much higher rate of brain glucose utilization than adults and seem to be particularly susceptible to the difering efects of glucose release," says Anke Sentko, vice president of regulatory afairs and nutrition communication for Be- neo, in the study announcement. "Accord- ingly, children's cognitive functions beneft most from the replacement of fast glucose release carbohydrates with the slow and sustained glucose supply of Palatinose. Te study highlights that starting the day with the right choice of carbohydrates can make all the diference to performance." Synthetic Vitamin K2 MK-7 Bioequivalent to Fermentation-Derived MK-7, Study Suggests Møller M et al., "Bioavailability and chemi- cal/functional aspects of synthetic MK-7 vs fermentation-derived MK-7 in randomised controlled trials," International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Published online July 4, 2016. Synthetically produced vitamin K2 as MK-7 has been in commercial use for sev- eral years now, but fermentation-derived MK-7 continues to be at the center of the market, perhaps due in part to a lack of proof establishing the bioequivalence of synthesized MK-7 and fermentation- derived MK-7. But now, new study results shared by Kappa Bioscience (Oslo, Norway) suggest its synthetic MK-7 ingredient, mar- keted under the brand K2Vital, is bioequiva- lent to fermentation-derived MK-7, both in activity and biological function. "Tis is an important development for the supplements industry because produc- tion by batch fermentation restricts MK-7 manufacturing scalability, and supply re- strictions create obstacles to overall growth of the vitamin K2 market," Kappa Biosci- ence explained in a study announcement. "A synthesis-based MK-7 production process allows for greater scalability and a secure supply chain, and continual improvements in the synthesis process will drive ingredient price reductions." Te study involved two components. In the frst piece of the study, a single-blind, two-way, crossover design trial, 16 healthy adults aged 20-66 were randomized to consume a single, 180-μg dose of synthetic MK-7 or fermentation-derived MK-7, with researchers monitoring serum MK-7 for the subsequent 72 hours to calculate AUC and Cmax levels. With a 90% confdence inter- val, researchers found that the ratio of AUC values from baseline to 72 hours after base- line for both synthetic and fermentation- derived MK-7 was 83-111, therefore "indi- cating bioequivalence." Additionally, a second piece of the study randomized 43 healthy adults aged 20–60 to consume either 90 μg of fermentation- derived MK-7, one of three doses of synthetic MK-7 (45 μg, 90 μg, or 180 μg), or a placebo daily for 43 days as part of a double-blinded parallel trial design. By comparing blood se- rum samples at baseline with those taken at the end of the supplementation period, re- searchers found that synthetic MK-7 and fer- mentation-derived MK-7 equally infuenced serum carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) and uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), "a pri- mary biological action of vitamin K2," Kappa Bioscience explained. Based on the fndings, researchers con- cluded that there was "evidence that the tested synthetic form of MK-7 is bioequiva- lent to fermentation-derived MK-7, exhibits vitamin K activity, and is well tolerated in healthy subjects." istoCkphoto.CoM/shiRonosov

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