Nutritional Outlook

Nutritional Outlook, October 2013

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Sports Getting to Know Nitric Oxide A brief look at the new sports market for nitric oxide ingredients BY JOANNA COSGROVE S erious athletes train hard and pay keen attention to how they nourish their bodies. Sports supplements formulated to keep athletes in peak condition generally fall into one of two categories: endurance enhancers or recovery aids. In recent years, the sports nutrition category has fourished with many new ingredients that are backed by scientifc studies—much to the delight of the category's core consumers who have become increasingly wary of products that deliver little more than empty promises. Of the aforementioned sports dietary supplement ingredient categories, endurance is currently the most rapidly evolving. Sports supplements that enhance endurance typically center on the premise of increasing the body's natural production of nitric oxide (NO), which increases blood fow (vasodilation), thereby improving the body's ability to make heightened use of oxygen and nutrients in the muscles. Te result is, ideally, an increase in performance potential. RECOVERY ROUNDUP Ingredients that help muscles recover post-training are an important part of increasing athletic performance: • ProHydrolase: A multi-enzyme formulation from Deerland Enzymes (Kennesaw, GA) supported by several in vitro tests, ProHydrolase is billed to be "bio-sufåcient," including all the tools required to break proteins down into a bio-usable form, regardless of endogenous enzyme output. • Nexrutine: A proprietary blend of Phellodendron amurense bark extract from Next Pharmaceuticals (Salinas, CA), Nexrutine inhibits the gene expression of the COX-2 enzyme, which is responsible for swelling and pain. • BioCore Recovery Acute: This formula from National Enzyme Co. (Forsyth, MO) consists of proteolytic enzymes such as bromelain, and antioxidants and minerals to support post-exercise tissue recovery and delayed onset of muscle soreness. • L-carnitine: Exercise can deplete cellular oxygen (hypoxia). Carnipure L-carnitine, manufactured by Lonza (Basel, Switzerland), is scientiåcally proven to restore endothelial cells during times of metabolic stress/exercise, increasing endothelial cell integrity and blood ýow to tissues. • OptiMSM: A GRAS-designated proprietary and patented form of MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) from Bergstrom Nutrition (Vancouver, WA) minimizes muscle damage and soreness caused by exercise. It is also said to increase antioxidant capacity and support healthy joints and range of motion. 78 magenta cyan yellow black As a precursor to nitric oxide, L-arginine has long been a go-to endurance enhancing ingredient, but there is substantial buzz around a new crop of products capable of producing a similar, if not improved, efect. Launched in May, Nitrosigine from Nutrition 21 LLC (Purchase, NY) is a patented source of inositol-stabilized arginine silicate with FDA new dietary ingredient (NDI) status. In a preclinical study led by James Russell of the University of Alberta, researchers investigated its metabolic efects and found that it raised blood arginine levels and was "more biologically efective" than arginine hydrochloride. Pointing to Nitrosigine's enhancement of coronary blood fow, Russell deems the ingredient a good ft for sports nutrition. Researchers from Kyowa Hakko USA (New York City), led by Darryn Willoughby of Baylor University, recently discovered that the potential of the amino acid L-citrulline rivals that of L-arginine. Te company presented its latest fndings earlier this year. "Our study found 1.6-fold increases in arginine blood levels with L-citrulline administration as compared to L-Arginine administration," said Danielle Citrolo, PharmD, manager of technical services for Kyowa Hakko USA. "Tis tells us we are able to achieve more efective levels of blood arginine with citrulline than by taking arginine itself. Our data presented was in animals, but this was also demonstrated in humans by Schwedhelm E. et al." Kyowa Hakko conducted two human studies—one that focused on blood fow enhancement and one on recovery benefts. OCTOBER 2013 ■ NUTRITIONAL OUTLOOK ES332321_NO1310_078.pgs 10.02.2013 01:33 UBM

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