Nutritional Outlook

Nutritional Outlook, September 2013

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research update M Edelmann et al., "Folate in barley grain and fractions," Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 58, no. 1 (July 2013): 37–44. Folic acid can reduce the risk of neural tube defects in infants. But so can folate, the form found in nature. As a beneft to manufacturers of cereal and grain products, research now indicates that barley can be a high source of folate. Like other grains, barley contains folate. But traditional methods for preparing barley for food include pearling, faking, and grounding—processes that remove the outer layers of the grain, where most of barley's folate is believed to reside. Reporting in the Journal of Cereal Science, researchers from the University of Helsinki and the Swiss Institute of Food, Nutrition, and Health analyzed the folate value in fve cultivars of dehulled barley. Using scarifcation and milling techniques, the researchers then created barley samples that were more concentrated in outer parts of grain, such as the endosperm. Compared to a marketpurchased barley four with a folate content of 379 ng/g, these barley fractions yielded folate as high as 1710 ng/g. In some cases, these fractions contained almost four times the folate found in non-fractionated barley of the same cultivar. Te researchers acknowledged that barley variety and storage time do infuence folate levels, but because "folate was localized in the outer layers and germ," they concluded that barley fractions should be considered a tool for fortifcation of cereal products. Te Academy of Finland provided funding for the study as part of its FOLAFIBRE project to explore folate and other bioactive compounds in oats and barley. Of the fve barley cultivars used in the study, Jyvä and Saana cultivars were deemed richest in folate. Amla Fruit May Beneft Type 2 Diabetics P Usharani et al., "Efects of Phyllanthus emblica extract on endothelial dysfunction and 72 magenta cyan yellow black biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study," Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, vol. 6 (2013): 275–284. Indian researchers are exploring a potential link between amla fruit (Phyllanthus emblica) and heart health. Te greenish fruit, also known as Indian gooseberry, is believed to have substantial anti-infammatory and fat-regulating properties that may beneft type 2 diabetics. Researchers from the Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences in India are so convinced of amla's cardiovascular potential that they pitted amla against a statin drug in a human trial. For 12 weeks, 80 type 2 diabetics were asked to consume amla extract (500 mg or 1000 mg), 10 mg of atorvastatin (known by the commercial name Lipitor), or placebo daily. Researchers monitored for changes in endothelial function (the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict) and markers of infammation, including glutathione, C-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde. Both amla and statin appeared to provide signifcant benefts to endothelial function and infammation, compared to placebo. Improvements were considerably greater with the statin drug, but statins do come with widely reported risks of side efects. Amla's potential to manage infammation and promote blood fow complements previous research on amla and cholesterol. And each of these issues can be major concerns for people with type 2 diabetes and other heart conditions. Natreon Inc. (New Brunswick, NJ) supplied its Capros amla fruit extract for this study. Alpha-Tocopherol Doesn't Break Down Other Vitamin E Forms T Uchida et al., " -tocopherol does not accelerate depletion of -tocopherol and tocotrienol or excretion of their metabolites in rats," Lipids, vol. 48, no. 7 (July 2013): 687–695. Tere is concern that alpha-tocopherol might cause the premature breakdown other vitamin E forms in the body, by a process known as omega-hydroxylation, and this has discourages some manufacturers from formulating dietary supplements with each vitamin E form as would be found in nature. But when Japanese researchers fed rats a diet of alpha-tocopherol mixed with other members of the vitamin E family, no such breakdowns occurred. For six weeks, Wistar rats fed on a diet rich in gamma-tocopherol before switching to a one-week diet with or without alpha-tocopherol. Rats that switched to an alpha-tocopherol diet did not show losses of the gammatocopherol obtained from the previous diet. Concentrations of gamma-tocopherol in serum, liver, adrenal gland, small intestine, and heart tissues were similar in both groups, as was detection of gamma-tocopherol metabolites in the urine. Next, rats fed on a tocotrienol-rich diet for six weeks before switching to a one-week diet with or without alpha-tocopherol. Te same analyses of body tissues and urine revealed no signifcant changes on tocotrienols and their metabolites. Te results of the study pleased WH Leong, vice president of Carotech Inc. (Edison, NJ), which supplied its Tocomin Suprabio complex of vitamin E for the study. "We have stressed numerous times that nature makes both tocopherols and tocotrienols, and, therefore, there is no reason (scientifcally or otherwise) to purposely remove tocopherol or limit tocopherol intake with tocotrienols," said Leong. "We need to take vitamin E as nature makes it—in wholesome and full-spectrum formula." September 2013 ■ magdaSmith/; bdSpn/ Barley Fractions Are High in Folate NUTRITIONAL OUTLOOK ES314570_NO1309_072.pgs 08.31.2013 01:25 UBM

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